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What is an Inverter-Based Resource?

What is an Inverter-Based Resource?

An inverter-based resource (IBR) refers to an electricity source that is linked to the electrical grid through an electronic power converter known as an “inverter.” Inverter designs for IBRs typically adhere to the IEEE 1547 and North American Reliability Corporation (NERC) PRC-024-2 standards.
Typically, inverter-based generating resources encompass Type 3 and Type 4 wind power plants, solar photovoltaic (PV) resources, and battery energy storage. Additionally, various reactive devices like STATCOMs and SVCs connected to the transmission network are considered inverter-based. Similarly, HVDC circuits interface with the AC network through converters. These inverter-based resources are interconnected at both the bulk power system (BPS) and distribution levels. However, this particular reference guide concentrates specifically on the efforts related to BPS-connected inverter-based resources.
The three main types of Inverters include:
  • Stand-alone inverters (supplies stable voltage and frequency to load)
  • Grid-connected inverters (the most commonly used option)
  • Bimodal inverters (usually more expensive and are used less often)


Photovoltaic Solar Array In Rosamond, California

Inverter-Based Resources and NERC

The rise in demand for renewable energy sources leads to an amplified impact and inherent danger to the BPS. The NERC has identified the swift integration of BPS-connected Inverter based resources as the foremost catalyst for grid transformation and a major threat to BPS reliability. While utilizing renewable energy offers significant benefits, it is crucial for the electrical industry to comprehend the favorable and unfavorable factors and establish appropriate Standards and Requirements in order to proactively address any potential long-term consequences on the BPS and its consumers.

Recently, NERC has created and submitted to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) a work plan to register IBR According to the following concept:

Generator Owner – Inverter-Based Resource (GO-IBR):

  • Owners of IBRs which have aggregate nameplate capacity of less than or equal to 75 MVA and greater than or equal to 20 MVA interconnected at a voltage greater than or equal to 100 kV; or
  • Owners of IBRs which have aggregate nameplate capacity of greater than or equal to 20 MVA interconnected at a voltage less than 100 kV.

Under these new criteria, IBR visibility would increase from approximately 14% to 98% and IBR that once were not required to register will now be obligated to become a NERC Registered Facility and be required to comply with NERC Reliability Standards.

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